​I study the evolution of primate molecular diversity and the mechanisms that create and maintain glycan diversity

Peer Reviewed Publications










Ovulation Induction for the General Gynecologist. Lindheim SR, Glenn TL, Smith MC, Gagneux P. J Obstet Gynaecol India. 2018 Aug;68(4):242-252.


Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy: Current Management Strategies. Glenn TL, Bembry J, Findley AD, Yaklic JL, Bhagavath B, Gagneux P, Lindheim SR. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2018 May;73(5):293-302. 

Evolutionary expansion of DNA hypomethylation in the mammalian germline genome.Qu J, Hodges E, Molaro A, Gagneux P, Dean MD, Hannon GJ, Smith AD.Genome Res. 2018 Feb;28(2):145-158.Erratum in: Genome Res. 2018 May;28(5):766.2. 

N-glycolyl groups of nonhuman chondroitin sulfates survive in ancient fossils. Bergfeld AK, Lawrence R, Diaz SL, Pearce OMT, Ghaderi D, Gagneux P, Leakey MG,Varki A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Sep 26;114(39)

Biological Functions of Glycans. Varki, A., Gagneux, P. 2017. In: Varki A,Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart GW, Aebi M, Darvill AG, Kinoshita T, PackerNH, Prestegard JH, Schnaar RL, Seeberger PH, editors. Essentials of Glycobiology[Internet]. 3rd edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laborator

Evolution of Glycan Diversity. Gagneux P, Aebi M, Varki A. 2017. In: Varki A,Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart GW, Aebi M, Darvill AG, Kinoshita T, PackerNH, Prestegard JH, Schnaar RL, Seeberger PH, editors. Essentials of Glycobiology[Internet]. 3rd edition. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; 2015-2017.

A Review of Vulvodynia: What We Know and Where We Should Be Going.

Havemann L.M., Cool, D.R., Gagneux, P., Markey, M.P., Yaklic, J.L., Maxwell, R.A., Iyer, A., and Lindheim S.R. 2017 J. of Lower Genital Tract Disease 2017 Apr;21(2):150-156.



​Synthetic Mucus Nanobarriers for Identification of Glycan-dependent Primary
Influenza A Infection Inhibitors. Cohen, M., Senaati H.P., Fisher, C.J., Huang, M. L., Pascal, P., and Godula, K.
2016. ACS Cent. Sci.

​A mouse model for reproductive xenosialitis: Antibodies to xenoglycan can reduce
fertility Ma, F. Deng, L., Secrest, P.,Choudhury, B., Zhao, J., Gagneux, P.
2016. JBC. 291(35):18222-31.

Sialylation facilitates the maturation of mammalian sperm and affects its survival in
female uterus.
 Ma, X,Pan,Q., Feng, Y.,Ma, Q.. Gagneux, P. and Ma, F.
2016. Biology of Reproduction. 94(6):123. ​

Des variations génétiques nouvelles préservent l'esprit des personnes âgées
Springer SA, Gagneux P.
2016. Médicine et Science.​

​Capture and characterization of influenza A virus from primary samples using glycan
bead arrays.
Cohen, M., Fisher, C.J., Huang, M.L. Lindsay, L.L., Plancarte, M., Boyce, W.M., Godula, K., and Gagneux. P.
2016. Virology.493:128-135.

​Reply to Liu and Jiang: Maintenance of Postreproductive Cognitive Capacity by
Inclusive Fitness
Springer, SA., Schwarz, F., Aitheide, T., Varki, N., Varki and Gagneux, P.
2016 A Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 113(12):E1591-2.



Detection of the dietary xenoglycan N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and anti-
Neu5Gc antibodies within reproductive tracts of male and female infertility subjects.
Sroga JM, Wu DH, Ma F, Tecle E, Reynoso HS, Ressler IB, Maxwell R, Ferrari R, Whigham L, Gagneux P, Lindheim S.
2015. Clin Obstet Gynecol Reprod Med 2015

Glycomics: revealing the dynamic ecology and evolution of sugar molecules
Springer SA, Gagneux P
2015. Journal of Proteomics 10.1016/j.prot.2015.11.022

​Human-specific Derived Alleles of CD33 and Other Genes Protect Against Cognitive
Deterioration in Post-Reproductive Individuals.
Schwarz F., Springer SA., Aitheide T., Varki NM, Gagneux, P. and Varki, A.
2015. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA.113(1):74-9.

​A sweet view of reproduction.
Lindheim S, Gagneux P,
Fertility and Sterility. 2015 04(3):533.

​Extreme selective sweeps independently targeted the X chromosomes of the great
Nam K, et al including Gagneux P Munch K, Hobolth A, Dutheil JY, Veeramah KR, Woerner AE, Hammer MF, Mailund T, Schierup MH
2015. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 112 (20) 6413-6418.

Sugar coated sperm: unraveling the functions of the mammalian sperm glycocalyx.
Tecle, E. & Gagneux, P.
Molecular Reproduction and Development. 2015 Epub ahead of print, doi: 10.1002/mrd.22500.​

Siglec Receptors Impact Mammalian Lifespan by Modulating Oxidative Stress.
Schwarz, F., Pearce, 0.M., Wang, X. Samraj, A.N., Laubli, H., Garcia, J.O., Lin, HQ, Fu, X.M., Garcia-Bingman, A., Secrest, P., Romanoski, C., Heyser, C., Glass, C., Hazen, S.L.,Varki, N., Varki, A., and Gagneux, P.
2015 eLife, e06184. DOI: 10.7554/ eLife.06184

​Determination of receptor specificities for whole influenza viruses using multivalent
glycan arrays.
Huang ML., Cohen M., Fisher CJ., Schooley RT., Gagneux P., Godula K. 2015
Chem Commun (Camb). 51(25):5326-9.



​Membrane-bound mucins and mucin terminal glycans expression in idiopathic or
Helicobacter pylori, NSAID associated peptic ulcers.
Niv, Y., Boltin, D., Halpern, M., Cohen, M., Levi, Z., Vilkin, A., Morgenstern, S., Manugian, V., St Lawrence, E., Gagneux, P., Kaur, S., Sharma, P., Batra, S.K., Ho, S.B.
2014. World J Gastroentero1;20(40):14913-20.

​Parallel evolution of a self-signal: humans and new world monkeys independently lost the cell surface sugar Neu5Gc
Springer SA., Diaz SL., and Gagneux P.
2014 Immunogenetics, 66(11):671-4.



​Influenza A penetrates host mucus by cleaving sialic acids with neuraminidase
Cohen M., Zhang XQ., Senaati HP., Chen HW., Varki N. Schooley, RT., Gagneux P.
2013 Virology Journal 10:321.
Great ape genetic diversity and population history
Prado-Martinez, J. et al. including. Gagneux P. ,Bustamante C.D., Hammer M.F., Eichler E.E., Marques-Bonet, T. Nature.
2013 Jul 25;499 (7459):471-5.
​Glycan Evolution in Response to Collaboration, Conflict, and Constraint
Springer, S. and Gagneux, P.
2013 J Biol Chem.28 (10);:6904-691 1



​Evolution of genetic and genomic features unique to the human lineage
O'Bleness, M., Searles, V. B., Varki,A., Gagneux, P. & Sikela, J. M.
Nat Rev Genet. 2012 Dec;13(12):853-66

​Sialidases on Mammalian Sperm Mediate Deciduous Sialylation During Capacitation.
Ma, F., Wu, D., Deng, L., Secrest, P., Zhao, J., Varki, N., Lindheim, S and Gagneux,P.
2012. J Biol Chem. 2012 Nov 2;287(45):38073-9

Frozen tissues use for natural mucin distribution.
Cohen. M. Yankowski, M.D., Varki, N, Gagneux, P. 2012 J Vis
Exp. 2012 Sep 21; (67):e3928. doi: 10.3791/3928 ​

Metabolism of Vertebrate Amino Sugars with N-glycolyl Groups: Resistance of a2-8-
linked N-glycolylneuraminic Acid to Enzymatic Cleavage.
Davies, L.R., Pearce, 0.M., Tessier, M.B., Assar, S., Smutova, V., Pajunen, M., Sumida, M., Sato, C., Kitajima, K., Finne, J., Gagneux, P., Pshezhetsky, A., Woods, R., Varki, A.
2012. J Biol Chem.

Multifarious roles of sialic acids in immunity.
Varki, A and Gagneux, P
An. Acad., Sci. New York. 2012. 1253:16-36



S​exual selection by female immunity against paternal antigens can fix loss of function alleles.
Ghaderi D*, Springer SA*, Ma F*, Cohen M, Secrest P, Taylor R, Varki A. Gagneux P
PNAS. 2011 108:17443-17448

​The annotation of the asparagine N-linked glycosylation pathway in the Reactome database.
Dall'Olio GM, Jassal B, Montanucci L, Gagneux P, Bertranpetit J, Laayouni H
Glycobiology. 2011 Nov ; 21(11): 1395-400

mtDNA diversity in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco.
Babb FL, Fernandez-Duque E, Baiduc CA, Gagneux P, Evans S, Schurr TG
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011 Oct ; 146(2): 209-24

Global statistical analysis of the mammalian vs. bacterial glycomes.
Adibekian A, Stallforth P, Hecht M, Werz DB Gagneux P, Seeberger PH
Chemical Science. 2011 2:337-344

​Evolutionary glycomics: characterization of milk oligosaccharides in primates.
Tao N, Wu S, Kim J, An HJ, Hinde K, Power ML, Gagneux P. German JB, Lebrilla CB J Proteome Res. 2011 Apr 1; 10(4): 1548-57



Human-specific evolution of sialic acid targets: explaining the malignant malaria mystery?
Varki A, Gagneux P
PNAS. 2009 Sep 1; 106(35): 14739-40

​Innovations in host and microbial sialic acid biosynthesis revealed by phylogenomic prediction of nonulosonic acid structure.
Lewis AL, Desa N, Hansen EE, Knirel YA, Gordon JI, Gagneux P, Nizet V, Varki A
PNAS. 2009 Aug 11; 106(32): 13552-7 



The use of optical tweezers to study sperm competition and motility in primates.
Nascimento JM, Shi LZ, Meyers S, Gagneux P, Loskutoff NM, Botvinick EL, Berns MW J R Soc Interface. 2008 Mar 6; 5(20): 297-302



​Functional evidence for differences in sperm competition in humans and chimpanzees.
Anderson MJ, Chapman SJ, Videan EN, Evans E, Fritz J, Stoinski TS, Dixson AF, Gagneux P
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2007 Oct ; 134(2): 274-80

Molecular assays for detection of falcon adenovirus.
Schrenzel M, Snook E, Gagneux P
J Vet Diaan Invest. 2007 Seo : 19(5): 479-85

Primate TNF promoters reveal markers of phylogeny and evolution of innate immunity.
Baena A, Mootnick AR, Falvo JV, Tsytskova AV, Ligeiro F, Diop OM, Brieva C, Gagneux P O'Brien SJ, Ryder OA, Goldfeld AE
PLoS One. 2007; 2(7): e621

Evolution of carbohydrate antigens--microbial forces shaping host glycomes?
Bishop JR, Gagneux P
Glycobiology. 2007 May ; 17(5): 23R-34R



​Loss of Siglec expression on T lymphocytes during human evolution.
Nguyen DH, Hurtado-Zioia N. Gagneux P, Varki A
PNAS. 2006 May 16; 103(20): 7765-70



​Subspecies composition and founder contribution of the captive U.S. chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.
Ely JJ, Dye B, Frels WI, Fritz J, Gagneux P, Khun HH, Switzer WM, Lee DR
Am J Primatol. 2005 Oct ; 67(2): 223-41

​Evolution of human-chimpanzee differences in malaria susceptibility: relationship to human genetic loss of N-glycolylneuraminic acid.
lartin MJ, Rayner JC, Gagneux P, Barnwell JW, Varki A
PNAS. 2005 Sep 6; 102(36): 12819-24

​The ethics of research on great apes.
Gagneux P, Moore JJ, Varki A
Nature. 2005 Sep 1; 437(7055): 27-9



A Pan-oramic view — insights into hominoid evolution through the chimpanzee genome.
Gagneux P
Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2004 19(11):571-576



​Human-specific regulation of alpha 2-6-linked sialic acids.
Gagneux P, Cheriyan M, Hurtado-Ziola N, van der Linden EC, Anderson D, McClure H, Varki A, Varki NM
J Biol Chem. 2003 Nov 28; 278(48): 48245-50

Human uptake and incorporation of an immunogenic nonhuman dietary sialic acid.
Tangvoranuntakul P, Gagneux P, Diaz S, Bardor M, Varki N, Varki A, Muchmore E
PNAS. 2003 Oct 14; 100(21): 12045-50



Ev​idence for an ancient selective sweep in the MHC class I gene repertoire of chimpanzees.
de Groot NG, Otting N, Doxiadis GG, Balla-Jhagjhoorsingh SS, Heeney JL, van Rood JJ, Gagneux P, Bontrop RE
PNAS 2002 Sep 3; 99(18): 11748-53

The genus Pan: population genetics of an endangered outgroup.
Gagneux P
Trends Genet. 2002 Jul ; 18(7): 327-30

​Reply to comments by Previc: Endocrine differences between humans and great apes
Did environmental factors provide genetic opportunities?
Gagneux P. Varki A
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002 118:404-405.



Paired chimpanzee hepatitis B virus (ChHBV) and mtDNA sequences suggest different ChHBV genetic variants are found in geographically distinct chimpanzee subspecies.
Hu X, Javadian A, Gagneux P, Robertson BH
Virus Res. 2001 Nov 5; 79(1-2): 103-8 ​

​Alu-mediated inactivation of the human CMP- N-acetylneuraminic acid hydroxylase gene.
PNAS. 2001 Sep 25; 98(20): 11399-404

Gene flow in wild chimpanzee populations: what genetic data tell us about chimpanzee movement over space and time.
Gagneux P, Gander MK, Goldberg IL, Morin PA
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001 Jun 29; 356(1410): 889-97

Proteomic comparison of human and great ape blood plasma reveals conserved glycosylation and differences in thyroid hormone metabolism.
Gagneux P. Amess B, Diaz S, Moore S, Patel T, Dillmann W, Parekh R, Varki A
Am J Phys Anthropol. 2001 Jun ; 115(2): 99-109

​Genetic differences between humans and great apes.
Gagneux P, Varki A
Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2001 Jan ; 18(1): 2-13



​A Primate Genome Project Deserves High Priority.
McConkey EH, Varki A. Cosignatories: Allman J, Benirschke K, Crick F, Deacon TW, de Waal F, Dugaiczyk A, Gagneux P, Goodman M, Grossman LI, Gumucio D, Insel T, Kidd KK, King M-C, Krauter K, Kucherlapati R, Motulsky AG, Nelson D, Oefner P, Palade G, Ruvolo M, Ryder OA, Sikela J, Stewart C-BA, Woodruff DS,
Science 2000 289:1295-1296.

​What Is the Meaningful Number for the Difference?
Gagneux P, Varki A.
In: Varki A. A Chimpanzee Genome Project is a Biomedical Imperative.
Genome Research. 2000 10: 1065-1070.



​Evolutionary considerations in relating oligosaccharide diversity to biological function.
Gagneux P, Varki A
Glycobiology. 1999 Aug ; 9(8): 747-55

Mitochondrial sequences show diverse evolutionary histories of African hominoids.
Gagneux P, Wills C, Gerloff U, Tautz D, Morin PA, Boesch C, Fruth B, Hohmann G, Ryder OA, Woodruff DS
PNAS. 1999 Apr 27; 96(9): 5077-P ​

Female reproductive strategies, paternity and community structure in wild West African chimpanzees.
Gagneux P, Boesch C, Woodruff DS
Anim Behay. 1999 Jan ; 57(1): 19-32 ​



​Microsatellite scoring errors associated with noninvasive genotyping based on nuclear DNA amplified from shed hair.
Gagneux P, Boesch C, Woodruff DS
Mol Ecol. 1997 Sep ; 6(9): 861-8

Sampling rapidly dwindling chimpanzee populations.
Gagneux P
Pan Africa News. 1997 4:12-15. ​

Book Chapters


​How Different Are Humans and "Great Apes"? A Matrix of Comparative Anthropogeny
Varki, A, Gagneux, P
In: On Human Nature, Biology, Psychology, Ethics, Politics, and Religion. Editors:
Michel Tibayrenc, Francisco Ayala,
2016. Academic Press.
Gagneux, P
In: Encyclopedia of the Human Genome II. Naruya Saitou Editor. Springer. in press. ​

Sweetness in Human Evolution.
Gagneux, P
in: Oxford Companion to Sweets. Oxford University Press.
Darra Goldstein Editor. 2015. ​

Primate Groups and their Correlates.
Gagneux, P
In: International Encyclopedia Of The Social & Behavioral Sciences 2nd Edition.
James Wright editor. 2015.

​Molecular Primatology.
Di Fiore, A, Lawler, RR, Gagneux, P In: Primates in Perspectives, Second Edition. Edited
by Christina J. Campbell, Agustin Fuentes, Katherine C. MacKinnon, Melissa Panger and
Simon K. Bearder, Rebecca M. Stumpf.
Oxford University Press, pps 390-416. 2011.

​Evolution of Glycan Diversity.
Varki A, Freeze H, Gagneux P
In: Essentials of Glycobiology. Second Edition, Cold Spring Harbor Press. Cold Spring Harbor. 2008

Primate Malarias.
Di Fiore A, Disotell T, Gagneux P, Ayala F
In: Primate Parasite Ecology: Dynamics and Study of Host-Parasite Relationships.
M.A. Huffman and C.A. Chapman,
eds. Cambridge University Press. 2008. ​

​Molecular Primatology.
Di Fiore A, Gagneux P
In Primates in Perspectives. Edited by Christina J. Campbell, Agustin Fuentes, Katherine G. MacKinnon, Melissa Panger and Simon K. Bearder,
Oxford University Press, 2006. pps 369-393.

​The chimpanzee model: contributions and considerations for studies of HBV.​
Gagneux P, Muchmore EA​
Hepatitis B and D Protocols Volume 2: Immunology, Model Systems, and Clinical Studies​
Edited by R. Hamatake.
Humana Press, 2004. pps. 289-318.

​Genetic Differences between Humans and the Great Apes.
Gagneux P Encyclopedia of the Human Genome, Ed. David Cooper. Nature Publishing Group,
Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London. 2003.

​The structure of primate families.
Gagneux P
International Encyclopedia Of The Social & Behavioral Sciences.
Ed. Neil J. Smelser & Paul B. Baltes,
Pergamon 2001.

Book Reviews


The Hygiene Hypothesis and Darwinian Medicine. Progress in Inflammation Research.
Graham A.W. Rook Ed, Birkhauser, Basel, Switzerland 2009.
Gagneux P
Quarterly Review of Biology. 2012 87:173-175

Gorilla Biology.
Taylor and Goldsmith Eds, Cambridge University Press 2004.
Gagneux P
Journal of Human Evolution. 2004 47:479-480

​Protein Structure and Function.
By Gregory A. Petsko and Dagmar Ringe, New Science Press 2004.
Gagneux P
Journal of Heredity. 2004 95:274

Gene Regulations, 4th Edition.
By David Latchman, Nelson Thornes, 2002.
Gagneux P
Journal of Heredity. 2003 94:528-529

The Evolution of Developmental Pathways.
By Adam S. Wilkins, Sinauer Associates, 2001.
Gagneux P
Journal of Heredity. 2002 93:460-461

The Behavioural Biology of Aggression
by J. Archer, Cambridge Studies in Behavioural Biology 1991.
Gagneux P
Journal of Evolutionary Biology. 1991 4:515-516.